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Agricultural Irrigation Product Groups

Dizayn Drip Irrigation Pipe and Fittings

Round Drip Irrigation:

Drip irrigation is the irrigation system in which treated water and fertilizer are given to soil surface or interior (plant root) part in a state of very small but continuous flow or in drops by means of drippers. The area of use of this method is expanding each passing day as a high amount as water is saved by using the irrigation water very efficiently, the soil humidity can be kept at the desired level and the necessary nutrients can be given to plants through water.

The drip irrigation method provides high irrigation efficiency. The pressure need for water distribution is very little. It does not require levelling in rough lands. The salt in the soil water can be controlled and water can be supplied continuously with high irrigation frequency circuits. Thanks to the drip irrigation method, wetting the upper parts of plants can be avoided, the air humidity is not affected much by irrigation and the soil surface between plant areas remains dry.

Ideal drip irrigation can be achieved by ensuring equal water outlet from all drippers. In this way, it is ensured that water is given to each plant in as equal amounts as possible during the irrigation period. When the water distribution is highly equal in drip irrigation, the water seeping deep underground from root area decreases and the amount of water needed by the plant is given to the root area.

Formation of a duff layer on the soil is prevented through drip irrigation. The water loss resulting from evaporation decreases and it becomes possible to conduct automatic control. The drip irrigation method requires a slight amount of workmanship and the operating costs are low in this method.

Production Specifications:

Drip irrigation pipes are made of PE raw materials in extruder lines. Drippers are placed inside pipers during production. Drippers decrease the water pressure thanks to their maze structure and thus water comes out of the pipe in drops. Drippers are placed inside pipes in different distances depending on planting gaps of plants. It is packed on coils and users can use them by cutting in desired lengths.

 

• Flat Drip Irrigation Pipes

• Round Drip Irrigation Pipes

• Round Drip Irrigation Pipes with Pressure Adjustment

• Oval Drip Irrigation Pipes

 

 

Flat Drip Irrigation:

• Made of original polyethylene raw material, these pipes are highly resistant to elongation, shrinkage and breakage.

• They are produced in 16 – 20 - 22 mm diameters with 6 – 35 MIL (0.15 – 0.9 mm) wall thickness.

Maximum Recommended Drip Line Length (Meters) Working Pressure: 1.0 bar Spacing Between Emitters

 

 

Round Drip Irrigation:

• Made of original polyethylene raw materials, these pipes guarantee the best results.

• They are produced in 16-20 mm diameters.

• 20 – 25 – 30 – 40 – 50- 60 -75 – 100 cm dripper distances are standard production distances. Dripper distances may be different upon request.

Advantages:

 

• Saves water

• Prevents soil salinization.

• Enables giving the plant as much water as it needs.

• As the water source is close to the plant, the plant uses its energy for stem and product development instead of root development.

• Prevents the growth of weeds that grow when the soil away from the plant is irrigated.

• It is possible to work efficiently as the soil does not turn into mud.

• As fertilizer is given inside the water in a melted state, it directly reaches the plant and fertilizer consumption is reduced.

• Unbalanced irrigation of plants caused by slopes does not occur.

• Vegetable flowers are not affected by irrigation.

• Very easy to pick up, store and reinstall.

• Clogging possibility is minimum thanks to specially designed drippers.

• Enables longer laying thanks to smooth interior.

• Saves agricultural pesticides, fertilizers and workmanship.

• Energy cost is kept at minimum as the system operates at low pressure.

 

 

 

Name of plant ml Name of plant ml Name of plant ml Name of plant ml
Citrus Fruits 8,24 Water Melon 5,5 Cucumber 5,0 Corn 7,0
Apple 8,8 Tomato 6,5 Potato 6,5 Vineyard 6,5
Melon 5,5 Pepper 5,75 Sugar Beet 7,25 Bean 4,75
Pistachio 9,3            

 

Applications:

 

It can be used for products that can be planted in different distances such as onion, potato, corn, cotton, tomato, vegetables, strawberry, banana, melon, watermelon, sunflower and horticulture products.

Use Specifications:

 

With drip irrigation system, the irrigation water is relayed near the root area of the plant in small amounts and dense distances. It saves 30 – 60% water compared to flooding irrigation and sprinkler irrigation. In order to prevent clogging of drippers in drip irrigation systems, it is necessary to install the control unit and ensure filtration. Drip irrigation systems can be used almost in all topographic conditions provided that necessary precautions are taken.

The operating pressure of the system is 1 bar and centrifugal, deep well and submersible pumps are preferred depending on the type of the water source. Filtration must be performed in the control unit. The control unit may differ depending on the water type. PE main pipes are used for taking water from source to side pipelines. The irrigation water is conveyed by PE side pipelines to lateral pipes and then irrigation is performed. Water is conveyed to the plant with the help of drippers. It would be appropriate to select the flow rate of the drippers as 2 l/h for heavy textured (clay) soil and 4 l/h for light and medium textured soil.

The wetting area percentage must be determined correctly during system planning. The wetting area percentage must not be lower than 30 %. The wetting area percentage can be calculated by performing measurements on the land. The wetting area percentage is found by ratio of the width of the soil wetted underground (the width of about 20 – 25 cm wetted on the soil surface) to the lateral distance. If row distance of vegetables is bigger than the dripper distance, a lateral pipe is placed on each plant row. If the dripper distance is bigger than the plant row number but smaller than its double size, lateral lines must be placed in the middle of two plant rows. The dripper distance is determined with a formula. While determining the distance between dripping units in drip irrigation systems, the water intake rate (mm/h) of the soil must be known and the flow rate of the dripper must be determined.

The dripper distance must be calculated with the help of the following formula:

Sd= Dripper distance (m)

q= Dripper flow rate( lt/saat)

l= Water Intake Rate of the Soil (mm/saat)

PLANT STRUCTURE PLANT STRUCTURE SHADOWED AREA PERCENTAGE, Ps (%)   EXPLANATION WATER APPLICATION EFFICIENCY, Ea
Arable Plants 80   Drip irrigation 0,80 - 0,95
Vegetables, Strawberry 80   Design stage 0,85
Densely planted fruit trees 75   In drippers with pressure regulator 0,90
Vineyard 75      
Sparsely planted fruit trees 75      

 

When lateral placing methods are preferred for trees, one lateral pipe can be placed in every row for small fruit trees while 2 lateral pipes may be placed in each plant row for mature fruit trees. One lateral pipe may be placed for mature trees and the wetted area percentage may be expanded with the zigzag method. Another application method for mature trees is placing one lateral pipe and arranging circular lateral pipes for each tree.

System Control Unit:

1. Pump Unit:

The outlet pressure of the pump that will provide the 0 – 1.5 atm. pressure needed for drip irrigation systems must be at least 2 - 2.5 atm. Different pump types can be used depending on the water source.

2. Control Unit:

This unit is used for cleaning the water and carrying nutrients to the plant and consists of the following elements.

a. Hydrocyclone: The control unit element used for discharging sand particles that are present in and heavier than the water.

b. Sand-Pebble Filter Tank: The control unit element used to filter objects such as weed, leaf, insect, sediment etc. that are present in and lighter than the water in cases where the irrigation water is supplied especially from lake, stream bed and ponds.

c. Fertilizer Tank: The control unit element of the irrigation system used for mixing into the water the nutrients needed by the plant and sent to the plant.

d. Sieve or Disk Filter: The control unit element used for holding sediment that cannot be filtered in the sand and pebble filter tank and fertilizer particles that may pass through the fertilizer tank.

3. Pipelines and Drippers

a. Main Pipe: PE100 pipes with Ø 32 - Ø 160 mm diameters are used.

b. Manifold Pipe: Used for distribution from the main pipe to lateral pipes and drippers. They are PE 100 coil pipes in Ø 20 - Ø 75 mm range.

c. Lateral Pipes: Dripping pipes in Ø 16 and Ø 20 diameters placed in parallel with plant rows.

Operation of the drip irrigation system

Some points must be taken into account while operating the drip irrigation system:

• The number of operating units of the drip irrigation system, how to plan the irrigation time for each unit (when you will start irrigating, how much irrigation water will be given or how long the irrigation will last) must be known.

• If it is raining, it must be known how long the irrigation will be delayed.

• For determining the starting time of the irrigation, the water consumption values of the plant may be used as well as devices such as tensiometer that displays the humidity level of the soil.

• In order to prevent the drippers of the drip irrigation system from clogging, filters must be periodically cleaned and maintained, diluted acid (like hydrochloric or orthophosphoric acid) must be applied a few times during the irrigation season and after the last irrigation.

• In order to get high and quality yield from plants irrigated with drip irrigation system, the macro and micro nutritional elements must be applied at the time and in the amount needed by the plant by mixing them into the water.

• With fertigation which means melting fertilizers in water and administering them with irrigation water, washing of the fertilizers is prevented, the fertilizers are used effectively, the salt area salinity resulting from fertilizers is reduced to low levels, it is made sure that the plant benefits from the fertilizers and irrigation water as much as possible; time, labour, tools and energy are saved and high productivity is achieved.

POINTS TO TAKE INTO ACCOUNT :

• A dripper that provides the appropriate flow rate for the plant must be chosen.

• Dripper distances of pipes must fit the plant distances.

• The system must not be operated before finding and installing a filter suitable for the water content.

• It must be paid attention not to get pipes muddy.

• The pipes must be of the maximum length recommended for equal dripping.

• Precautions must be taken as moss formation occurs in still water with temperature higher than 25 °C.

• Pipes must not be stores under sunlight.

Maintenance:

PHOSPHORIC AND NITRIC ACID must be applied during the irrigation season in order to clean the drip water pipes and to meet the plant substance need. They are applied 1 litre per decare (one-tenth of a hectare) every 15-21 days during the implementation season. Before

giving acid to the system, clean water is given until the operating pressure is reached. Then acid is given for half an hour. Then enough clean water is flown so that no acid water is left inside the pipes (at least half an hour depending on the farmland condition). Pipe ends must be removed a few times during the season and water must be pumped to the system until

clean water comes in order to remove the dirt inside the pipes.

Storage:

At the end of the season, pipes must be folded on coils in a manner that they will not break, and they must not be coiled in diameters less then 32 cm. Otherwise mechanical damages may occur. Pipes must be stored away from sunlight so that they will be long-lasting. Precautions must be taken to prevent pipes from sticking to root and stem parts of plants while coiling.